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Biosystem | Wikipedia audio article

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Описание

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem


00:02:06 1 History
00:03:37 2 Processes
00:05:37 2.1 Primary production
00:07:02 2.2 Energy flow
00:09:04 2.3 Decomposition
00:12:37 2.4 Nutrient cycling
00:15:35 2.5 Function and biodiversity
00:17:22 2.6 Dynamics
00:20:04 3 Ecosystem ecology
00:22:44 4 Human activities
00:23:06 4.1 Ecosystem goods and services
00:24:09 4.2 Ecosystem management
00:24:58 4.3 Threats caused by humans
00:26:32 5 See also



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Speaking Rate: 0.862817150306279
Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D


"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
- Socrates


SUMMARY
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An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the system through photosynthesis and is incorporated into plant tissue. By feeding on plants and on one-another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.Ecosystems are controlled by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. Unlike external factors, internal factors are controlled, for example, decomposition, root competition, shading, disturbance, succession, and the types of species present.
Ecosystems are dynamic entities—they are subject to periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world can end up doing things very differently simply because they have different pools of species present. Internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them and are often subject to feedback loops.Resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes like climate and parent material. Resource availability within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors like decomposition, root competition or shading. Although humans operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate.Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning, as do the processes of disturbance and succession. Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend.

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