This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:02:56 1 Biology
00:03:13 1.1 Lifespan and life stages
00:05:24 1.2 Size and measurement
00:07:59 1.2.1 Ponies
00:10:42 1.3 Genetics
00:11:08 1.4 Colors and markings
00:13:04 1.5 Reproduction and development
00:15:03 1.6 Anatomy
00:15:11 1.6.1 Skeletal system
00:16:29 1.6.2 Hooves
00:17:31 1.6.3 Teeth
00:18:49 1.6.4 Digestion
00:19:57 1.6.5 Senses
00:22:45 1.7 Movement
00:24:01 1.8 Behavior
00:25:37 1.8.1 Intelligence and learning
00:27:11 1.8.2 Temperament
00:30:07 1.8.3 Sleep patterns
00:31:34 2 Taxonomy and evolution
00:33:58 2.1 Wild species surviving into modern times
00:36:15 2.2 Other modern equids
00:37:05 3 Domestication
00:39:51 3.1 Feral populations
00:40:39 3.2 Breeds
00:42:51 4 Interaction with humans
00:44:55 4.1 Sport
00:47:36 4.2 Work
00:49:21 4.3 Warfare
00:50:06 4.4 Entertainment and culture
00:51:47 4.5 Therapeutic use
00:53:26 4.6 Products
00:55:05 4.7 Care
00:56:38 5 See also
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Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.
Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep significantly more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.
Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance; "cold bloods", such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and "warmbloods", developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses.
Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment, and therapy. Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.