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Phycobiont | Wikipedia audio article

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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen


00:03:59 1 Pronunciation and etymology
00:04:48 2 Growth forms
00:09:26 2.1 Color
00:12:28 2.2 Internal structure and growth forms
00:20:23 3 Physiology
00:20:32 3.1 Symbiotic relation
00:27:16 3.2 Ecology
00:28:48 3.2.1 Miniature ecosystem and holobiont theory
00:30:57 3.2.2 Lichenicolous fungi
00:31:27 3.3 Reaction to water
00:32:00 3.4 Metabolites, metabolite structures and bioactivity
00:32:45 3.5 Growth rate
00:33:19 3.6 Life span
00:34:17 3.7 Response to environmental stress
00:36:22 4 Reproduction and dispersal
00:36:33 4.1 Vegetative reproduction
00:38:21 4.2 Sexual reproduction
00:43:16 5 Taxonomy and classification
00:46:27 5.1 Fungi
00:48:10 5.2 Photobionts
00:53:35 5.3 Controversy over classification method and species names
00:57:45 5.4 Diversity
00:59:21 5.5 Identification methods
01:00:06 5.6 Evolution and paleontology
01:04:27 6 Ecology and interactions with environment
01:04:39 6.1 Substrates and habitats
01:09:08 6.2 Lichens and soils
01:10:44 6.3 Ecological interactions
01:15:09 6.4 Effects of air pollution
01:17:54 7 Human use
01:18:03 7.1 Food
01:20:01 7.2 Lichenometry
01:21:43 7.3 Biodegradation
01:22:15 7.4 As dyes
01:23:53 7.5 Traditional medicine and research
01:25:17 7.6 Aesthetic appeal
01:26:14 7.7 In literature
01:27:03 8 History
01:29:22 9 Gallery
01:29:31 10 See also



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SUMMARY
=======
A lichen (, LEYE-ken but in UK often , LICH-en) is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.A macrolichen is a lichen that is either bush-like or leafy; all other lichens are termed microlichens. Here, "macro" and "micro" do not refer to size, but to the growth form. Common names for lichens may contain the word moss (e.g., "reindeer moss", "Iceland moss"), and lichens may superficially look like and grow with mosses, but lichens are not related to mosses or any plant. Lichens do not have roots that absorb water and nutrients as plants do, but like plants, they produce their own nutrition by photosynthesis. When they grow on plants, they do not live as parasites, but instead use the plants as a substrate.
Lichens occur from sea level to high alpine elevations, in many environmental conditions, and can grow on almost any surface. Lichens are abundant growing on bark, leaves, mosses, on other lichens, and hanging from branches "living on thin air" (epiphytes) in rain forests and in temperate woodland. They grow on rock, walls, gravestones, roofs, exposed soil surfaces, and in the soil as part of a biological soil crust. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps. They can even live inside solid rock, growing between the grains.
It is estimated that 6% of Earth's land surface is covered by lichens. There are about 20,000 known species of lichens. Some lichens have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, yet continue to speciate. Lichens can be seen as being relatively self-contained miniature ecosystems, where the fungi, algae, or cyanobacteria have the potential to engage with other microorganisms in a functioning system that may evolve as an even more complex composite organism.Lichens may be long-lived, with some considered to be among the oldest living things. T ...

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