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Rare-earth | Wikipedia audio article

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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare-earth_element


00:02:06 1 List
00:02:40 2 Abbreviations
00:03:16 3 Discovery and early history
00:03:20 3.1 Spectroscopy
00:06:43 3.2 Early classification
00:11:18 3.3 Light versus heavy classification
00:13:00 4 Origin
00:15:29 5 Geological distribution
00:16:19 6 Geochemistry applications
00:24:48 7 Global rare-earth production
00:29:36 7.1 China
00:32:25 7.2 Outside of China
00:35:59 7.2.1 Malaysian refining plans
00:39:55 7.3 Other sources
00:42:32 7.3.1 Recycling
00:44:18 8 Uses
00:45:18 9 Environmental considerations
00:47:42 9.1 Consequences and remediation
00:50:23 9.2 Environmental pollution
00:52:45 9.2.1 Impact on vegetation
00:53:17 9.2.2 Impact on human health
00:55:09 9.2.3 Impact on animal health
00:58:23 10 Geo-political considerations
01:00:11 11 See also
01:05:49 12 References



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SUMMARY
=======
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare-earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties, but have different electronic and magnetic properties. Rarely, a broader definition that includes actinides may be used, since the actinides share some mineralogical, chemical, and physical (especially electron shell configuration) characteristics.The 17 rare-earth elements are cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and yttrium (Y).
Despite their name, rare-earth elements are – with the exception of the radioactive promethium – relatively plentiful in Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million, more abundant than copper. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare-earth elements are typically dispersed and not often found concentrated in rare-earth minerals; as a result economically exploitable ore deposits are less common. The first rare-earth mineral discovered (1787) was gadolinite, a mineral composed of cerium, yttrium, iron, silicon, and other elements. This mineral was extracted from a mine in the village of Ytterby in Sweden; four of the rare-earth elements bear names derived from this single location.

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