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Soil | Wikipedia audio article

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Описание

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil


00:02:47 1 Overview
00:02:56 1.1 Functions
00:06:05 1.2 Description
00:11:19 2 History of studies
00:11:28 2.1 Fertility
00:18:11 2.2 Formation
00:20:26 3 Formation
00:22:51 3.1 Factors
00:23:24 3.1.1 Parent material
00:26:55 3.1.1.1 Weathering
00:32:47 3.1.2 Climate
00:37:40 3.1.3 Topography
00:39:43 3.1.4 Organisms
00:46:49 3.1.5 Time
00:49:09 4 Physical properties
00:50:50 4.1 Texture
00:56:05 4.2 Structure
01:02:42 4.3 Density
01:04:37 4.4 Porosity
01:06:18 4.5 Consistency
01:08:34 4.6 Temperature
01:16:16 4.7 Color
01:18:48 4.8 Resistivity
01:19:36 5 Water
01:23:49 5.1 Water retention forces
01:25:06 5.2 Moisture classification
01:26:33 5.3 Soil moisture content
01:27:44 5.4 Water flow
01:29:53 5.4.1 Saturated
01:31:11 5.4.2 Unsaturated
01:32:14 5.5 Water uptake by plants
01:35:31 5.6 Consumptive use and water use efficiency
01:37:12 6 Atmosphere
01:40:54 7 Composition of the solid phase (soil matrix)
01:41:35 7.1 Gravel, sand and silt
01:42:27 7.2 Mineral colloids; soil clays
01:45:50 7.2.1 Alumino-silica clays
01:50:05 7.2.2 Crystalline chain clays
01:50:24 7.2.3 Amorphous clays
01:51:26 7.2.4 Sesquioxide clays
01:52:48 7.3 Organic colloids
01:53:40 7.4 Carbon and terra preta
01:54:56 8 Chemistry
01:56:39 8.1 Cation and anion exchange
02:00:07 8.1.1 Cation exchange capacity (CEC)
02:01:43 8.1.2 Anion exchange capacity (AEC)
02:03:11 8.2 Reactivity (pH)
02:04:44 8.2.1 Base saturation percentage
02:06:39 8.3 Buffering
02:06:49 9 Nutrients
02:07:28 9.1 Uptake processes
02:08:26 9.2 Carbon
02:10:06 9.3 Nitrogen
02:12:42 9.3.1 Gains
02:16:50 9.3.2 Sequestration
02:18:30 9.3.3 Losses
02:20:58 9.4 Phosphorus
02:23:45 9.5 Potassium
02:24:53 9.6 Calcium
02:26:15 9.7 Magnesium
02:27:56 9.8 Sulfur
02:28:55 9.9 Micronutrients
02:29:36 9.10 Non-essential nutrients
02:30:12 10 Soil organic matter
02:31:23 10.1 Humus
02:32:24 10.2 Climatological influence
02:32:52 10.3 Plant residue
02:36:11 11 Horizons
02:40:03 12 Classification
02:41:08 12.1 Systems
02:42:02 12.1.1 Australia
02:43:36 12.1.2 European Union
02:44:46 12.1.3 United States
02:44:55 13 Uses
02:45:25 14 Degradation
02:45:46 15 Reclamation
02:46:35 16 See also
02:50:58 17 References
02:57:13 18 Further reading



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SUMMARY
=======
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions:

as a medium for plant growth
as a means of water storage, supply and purification
as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere
as a habitat for organismsAll of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil.
The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense "fundamental stone". Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soil scientists can envisage soils as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases.Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and the soil's parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem.Most soils have a dry bulk density (density of soil taking into account voids when dry) between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3. Little of the soi ...

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